Installation d’un serveur MySQL sous Ubuntu

mysql

Une des premières choses que je fais lorsque j'installe un serveur sous Ubuntu ou Debian, c'est d'installer un serveur MySQL afin de pouvoir héberger les bases de données de mes différents sites. Voila un petit récapitulatif concernant MySQL, son installation et son utilisation.

Installation d'un serveur MySQL

Pour installer un serveur MySQL sous Ubuntu il suffit d'utiliser le paquet "mysql-server-5.1" disponible dans les dépôts. Il suffit de lancer la commande suivante:

apt-get install mysql-server-5.1

Vous aurez alors un résultat de la sorte:

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  libxcb-render-util0-dev xulrunner-1.9.1 libxcb-render-util0
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
Selecting previously deselected package libnet-daemon-perl.
(Reading database ... 159847 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking libnet-daemon-perl (from .../libnet-daemon-perl_0.43-1_all.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libplrpc-perl.
Unpacking libplrpc-perl (from .../libplrpc-perl_0.2020-2_all.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libdbi-perl.
Unpacking libdbi-perl (from .../libdbi-perl_1.612-1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libdbd-mysql-perl.
Unpacking libdbd-mysql-perl (from .../libdbd-mysql-perl_4.016-1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package mysql-client-5.1.
Unpacking mysql-client-5.1 (from .../mysql-client-5.1_5.1.49-3_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package mysql-server-core-5.1.
Unpacking mysql-server-core-5.1 (from .../mysql-server-core-5.1_5.1.49-3_amd64.deb)

Pendant l'installation, vous aurez à répondre à plusieurs questions afin de défnir votre mot de passe Administrateur (cf. les captures d'écran suivante):

installation de mysql sur ubuntu installation de mysql sur ubuntu part 2

Votre serveur MySQL est désormais installé et prêt à être utilisé.

Démarrer et Arrêter votre serveur MySQL

Votre serveur MySQL étant installé en tant que service, il démarre automatiquement lorsque votre serveur Ubuntu démarre.

Il se peut toutefois que vous ayez besoin d'éteindre ou de redémarrer votre serveur MySQL. Pour cela vous disposez des commandes suivante:

#démarrage du serveur MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysql start
#arrêt du serveur MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysql stop
#arrêt et démarrage du serveur MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysql restart
#affichage de l'état du serveur MySQL
/etc/init.d/mysql status

Vous pouvez également utiliser les commandes suivante:

service mysql start
service mysql stop
service mysql restart
service mysql status

Fichier de configuration de MySQL

Vous pouvez également modifier certains paramètres comme le port d'écoute de votre serveur MySQL. Pour éditer le fichier de configuration:

nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Voici un exemple de fichier de configuration:

#
# The MySQL database server configuration file.
#
# You can copy this to one of:
# - "/etc/mysql/my.cnf" to set global options,
# - "~/.my.cnf" to set user-specific options.
#
# One can use all long options that the program supports.
# Run program with --help to get a list of available options and with
# --print-defaults to see which it would actually understand and use.
#
# For explanations see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/server-system-variables.html
 
# This will be passed to all mysql clients
# It has been reported that passwords should be enclosed with ticks/quotes
# escpecially if they contain "#" chars...
# Remember to edit /etc/mysql/debian.cnf when changing the socket location.
[client]
port            = 3306
socket          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
 
# Here is entries for some specific programs
# The following values assume you have at least 32M ram
 
# This was formally known as [safe_mysqld]. Both versions are currently parsed.
[mysqld_safe]
socket          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
nice            = 0
 
[mysqld]
#
# * Basic Settings
#
user            = mysql
pid-file        = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
socket          = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port            = 3306
basedir         = /usr
datadir         = /var/lib/mysql
tmpdir          = /tmp
language        = /usr/share/mysql/english
skip-external-locking
#
# Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on
# localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.
bind-address            = 127.0.0.1
#
# * Fine Tuning
#
key_buffer              = 16M
max_allowed_packet      = 16M
thread_stack            = 192K
thread_cache_size       = 8
# This replaces the startup script and checks MyISAM tables if needed
# the first time they are touched
myisam-recover         = BACKUP
#max_connections        = 100
#table_cache            = 64
#thread_concurrency     = 10
#
# * Query Cache Configuration
#
query_cache_limit       = 1M
query_cache_size        = 16M
#
# * Logging and Replication
#
# Both location gets rotated by the cronjob.
# Be aware that this log type is a performance killer.
# As of 5.1 you can enable the log at runtime!
#general_log_file        = /var/log/mysql/mysql.log
#general_log             = 1
#
# Error logging goes to syslog due to /etc/mysql/conf.d/mysqld_safe_syslog.cnf.
#
# Here you can see queries with especially long duration
#log_slow_queries       = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
#long_query_time = 2
#log-queries-not-using-indexes
#
# The following can be used as easy to replay backup logs or for replication.
# note: if you are setting up a replication slave, see README.Debian about
#       other settings you may need to change.
#server-id              = 1
#log_bin                        = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
expire_logs_days        = 10
max_binlog_size         = 100M
#binlog_do_db           = include_database_name
#binlog_ignore_db       = include_database_name
#
# * InnoDB
#
# InnoDB is enabled by default with a 10MB datafile in /var/lib/mysql/.
# Read the manual for more InnoDB related options. There are many!
#
# * Security Features
#
# Read the manual, too, if you want chroot!
# chroot = /var/lib/mysql/
#
# For generating SSL certificates I recommend the OpenSSL GUI "tinyca".
#
# ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/cacert.pem
# ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem
# ssl-key=/etc/mysql/server-key.pem
 
[mysqldump]
quick
quote-names
max_allowed_packet      = 16M
 
[mysql]
#no-auto-rehash # faster start of mysql but no tab completition
 
[isamchk]
key_buffer              = 16M
 
#
# * IMPORTANT: Additional settings that can override those from this file!
#   The files must end with '.cnf', otherwise they'll be ignored.
#
!includedir /etc/mysql/conf.d/

Se connecter au serveur MySQL

Il est possible de se connecter au serveur MySQL en utilisant les lignes de commandes:

mysql -u root -p

Voilà pour les commandes de base concernant MySQL, son installation et sa configuration.

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